Review of: Stromkrieg

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Stromkrieg

Der Erfinder Thomas Alva Edison in seinem Labor (). Den Stromkrieg führte er mit schmutzigen Tricks. VHS gegen Betamax, Blu-Ray. Der Stromkrieg. Gleichstrom oder Wechselstrom? Oktober Vorlesen. Für uns ist es heute selbstverständlich: Der Strom, der aus unseren Steckdosen. "Edison - Ein Leben voller Licht" Drama über den "Stromkrieg". (ili/spot), ​ - Uhr. Edison - Ein Leben voller Licht: George Westinghouse.

Stromkrieg 2 Kommentare zu "Schneller schlau: Wer waren die Opfer von Edisons Stromkrieg?"

Der Stromkrieg (englisch war of currents) war um ein Streit zwischen Thomas Alva Edison (–) und George Westinghouse (–), ob die. Der Stromkrieg war um ein Streit zwischen Thomas Alva Edison und George Westinghouse, ob die von Edison favorisierte Gleichspannung oder die von Westinghouse favorisierte Wechselspannung die. Im Bereich der Geschichte der Elektrotechnik strahlte das ZDF am Sonntag den um h die Sendung Mission X: Der Stromkrieg (Edisons. Der Stromkrieg. Gleichstrom oder Wechselstrom? Oktober Vorlesen. Für uns ist es heute selbstverständlich: Der Strom, der aus unseren Steckdosen. Als "Stromkrieg" wird heute die Propaganda-Schlacht um die Elektrifizierung der USA bezeichnet. Technisch ging es darum, die US-amerikanischen Haushalte. Damit ist der „Stromkrieg“ zwischen dem Gleichstromverfechter Thomas Alva Edison und den Wechselstromanhängern George Westinghouse sowie Nikola. "Edison - Ein Leben voller Licht" Drama über den "Stromkrieg". (ili/spot), ​ - Uhr. Edison - Ein Leben voller Licht: George Westinghouse.

Stromkrieg

Der Erfinder Thomas Alva Edison in seinem Labor (). Den Stromkrieg führte er mit schmutzigen Tricks. VHS gegen Betamax, Blu-Ray. Damit ist der „Stromkrieg“ zwischen dem Gleichstromverfechter Thomas Alva Edison und den Wechselstromanhängern George Westinghouse sowie Nikola. Als "Stromkrieg" wird heute die Propaganda-Schlacht um die Elektrifizierung der USA bezeichnet. Technisch ging es darum, die US-amerikanischen Haushalte.

Stromkrieg aus Wikipedia, der freien Enzyklopädie Video

Der Stromkrieg - Gleich- oder Wechselstrom? (Dokumentation Edison/Westinghouse/Tesla)

Brown argued that the AC system was inherently dangerous and "damnable" and asked why the "public must submit to constant danger from sudden death" just so utilities could use a cheaper AC system.

At the beginning of attacks on AC, Westinghouse, in a June 7, letter, tried to defuse the situation. He invited Edison to visit him in Pittsburgh and said "I believe there has been a systemic attempt on the part of some people to do a great deal of mischief and create as great a difference as possible between the Edison Company and The Westinghouse Electric Co.

Edison thanked him but said "My laboratory work consumes the whole of my time". On June 8, Brown was lobbying in person before the New York Board of Electrical Control, asking that his letter to the paper be read into the meeting's record and demanding severe regulations on AC including limiting power to volts, a level that would make AC next to useless for transmission.

There were many rebuttals to Brown's claims in the newspapers and letters to the board, with people pointing out he was showing no scientific evidence that AC was more dangerous than DC.

Westinghouse pointed out in letters to various newspapers the number of fires caused by DC equipment and suggested that Brown was obviously being controlled by Edison, something Brown continually denied.

At a July meeting Board of Electrical Control, Brown's criticisms of AC and even his knowledge of electricity was challenged by other electrical engineers, some of whom worked for Westinghouse.

At this meeting, supporters of AC provided anecdotal stories from electricians on how they had survived shocks from AC at voltages up to volts and argued that DC was the more dangerous of the two.

Brown, determined to prove alternating current was more dangerous than direct current, at some point contacted Thomas Edison to see if he could make use of equipment to conduct experiments.

Edison immediately offered to assist Brown in his crusade against AC companies. Brown paid local children to collect stray dogs off the street for his experiments with direct and alternating current.

Brown then applied volts of alternating current which killed the dog. Four days later he held a second demonstration to answer critics' claims that the DC probably weakened the dog before it died.

In this second demonstration, three dogs were killed in quick succession with volts of AC. Brown's campaign to restrict AC to volts went nowhere but legislation did come close to passing in Ohio and Virginia.

What brought Brown to the forefront of the debate over AC and his motives remain unclear, [55] but historians note there grew to be some form of collusion between the Edison company and Brown.

Hastings who came up with the idea of using Brown and several New York physicians to attack Westinghouse and the other AC companies in retaliation for what Hastings thought were unscrupulous bids by Westinghouse for lighting contracts in Denver and Minneapolis.

During this period Westinghouse continued to pour money and engineering resources into the goal of building a completely integrated AC system.

He bought the Waterhouse Electric Light Company in and the United States Illuminating Company in , giving Westinghouse their own arc lighting systems as well as control over all the major incandescent lamp patents not controlled by Edison.

Shallenberger developed an induction meter that used a rotating magnetic field for measuring alternating current , giving the company a way to calculate how much electricity a customer used.

Morgan to take over Westinghouse Electric. Thomson-Houston was continuing to expand, buying seven smaller electric companies including a purchase of the Brush Electric Company in Several of the business deals between Thomson-Houston and Westinghouse fell apart and in April a judge rolled back part of Westinghouse's original Gaulard Gibbs patent, stating it only covered transformers linked in series.

Morgan and the Vanderbilt family for Edison's lighting experiments, merged. Through the fall of a battle of words with Brown specifically attacking Westinghouse continued to escalate.

The magazine investigated the claim and found at most only two of the deaths could be attributed to Westinghouse installations.

Although New York had a criminal procedure code that specified electrocution via an electric chair, it did not spell out the type of electricity, the amount of current, or its method of supply, since these were still relative unknowns.

During this time they sought the advice of Harold Brown as a consultant. This ended up expanding the war of currents into the development of the chair and the general debate over capital punishment in the US.

After the Medico-Legal Society formed their committee in September chairman Frederick Peterson , who had been an assistant at Brown's July public electrocution of dogs with AC at Columbia College, [79] had the results of those experiments submitted to the committee.

The claims that AC was more deadly than DC and was the best current to use was questioned with some committee members, pointing out that Brown's experiments were not scientifically carried out and were on animals smaller than a human being.

At their November meeting the committee recommended volts although the type of electricity, direct current or alternating current , was not determined.

Hastings to arrange the use of the West Orange laboratory. Brown used alternating current for all of his tests on animals larger than a human, including 4 calves and a lame horse, all dispatched with volts of AC.

Westinghouse criticized these tests as a skewed self-serving demonstration designed to be a direct attack on alternating current. Brown's December 18 letter refuted the claims and Brown even challenged Westinghouse to an electrical duel, with Brown agreeing to be shocked by ever-increasing amounts of DC power if Westinghouse submitted himself to the same amount of increasing AC power, first to quit loses.

In March when members of the Medico-Legal Society embarked on another series of tests to work out the details of electrode composition and placement they turned to Brown for technical assistance.

Also in March, Superintendent of Prisons Austin Lathrop asked Brown if he could supply the equipment needed for the executions as well as design the electric chair.

Brown turned down the job of designing the chair but did agree to fulfill the contract to supply the necessary electrical equipment. This became another behind-the-scenes maneuver to acquire Westinghouse AC generators to supply the current, apparently with the help of the Edison company and Westinghouse's chief AC rival, Thomson-Houston.

In May when New York had its first criminal sentenced to be executed in the electric chair, a street merchant named William Kemmler , there was a great deal of discussion in the editorial column of the New York Times as to what to call the then-new form of execution.

The term " Westinghouse d" was put forward as well as " Gerry cide" after death penalty commission head Elbridge Gerry , and " Brown ed". William Kemmler was sentenced to die in the electric chair around June 24, , but before the sentence could be carried out an appeal was filed on the grounds that it constituted cruel and unusual punishment under the US Constitution.

It became obvious to the press and everyone involved that the politically connected and expensive lawyer who filed the appeal, William Bourke Cockran , had no connection to the case but did have connection to the Westinghouse company, obviously paying for his services.

During fact-finding hearings held around the state beginning on July 9 in New York City, Cockran used his considerable skills as a cross-examiner and orator to attack Brown, Edison, and their supporters.

His strategy was to show that Brown had falsified his test on the killing power of AC and to prove that electricity would not cause certain death and simply lead to torturing the condemned.

In cross examination he questioned Brown's lack of credentials in the electrical field and brought up possible collusion between Brown and Edison, which Brown again denied.

Many witnesses were called by both sides to give firsthand anecdotal accounts about encounters with electricity and evidence was given by medical professionals on the human body's nervous system and the electrical conductivity of skin.

Brown was accused of fudging his tests on animals, hiding the fact that he was using lower current DC and high-current AC.

After the gathered testimony was submitted and the two sides presented their case, Judge Edwin Day ruled against Kemmler's appeal on October 9 and US Supreme Court denied Kemmler's appeal on May 23, When the chair was first used, on August 6, , the technicians on hand misjudged the voltage needed to kill William Kemmler.

After the first jolt of electricity Kemmler was found to be still breathing. The procedure had to be repeated and a reporter on hand described it as "an awful spectacle, far worse than hanging.

On August 25, the New York Sun ran a story headlined:. The story was based on 45 letters stolen from Brown's office that spelled out Brown's collusion with Thomson-Houston and Edison Electric.

The majority of the letters were correspondence between Brown and Thomson-Houston on the topic of acquiring the three Westinghouse generators for the state of New York as well as using one of them in an efficiency test.

Further Edison involvement was contained in letters from Edison treasurer Hastings asking Brown to send anti-AC pamphlets to all the legislators in the state of Missouri at the company's expense , Brown requesting that a letter of recommendation from Thomas Edison be sent to Scranton, PA, as well as Edison and Arthur Kennelly coaching Brown in his upcoming testimony in the Kemmler appeal trial.

Brown was not slowed down by this revelation and characterized his efforts to expose Westinghouse as the same as going after a grocer who sells poison and calls it sugar.

Grant , in a meeting with the Board of Electrical Control and the AC electric companies, rejected the claims that the AC lines were perfectly safe saying "we get news of all who touch them through the coroners office".

As the lunchtime crowd below looked on he grabbed a nearby line that, unknown to him, had been shorted many blocks away with a high-voltage AC line.

The jolt entered through his bare right hand and exited his left steel studded climbing boot. Feeks was killed almost instantly, his body falling into the tangle of wire, sparking, burning, and smoldering for the better part of an hour while a horrified crowd of thousands gathered below.

The source of the power that killed Feeks was not determined although United States Illuminating Company lines ran nearby.

Feeks' public death sparked a new round of people fearing the electric lines over their heads in what has been called the "Electric Wire Panic".

The October 13, , New Orleans Times-Picayune noted "Death does not stop at the door, but comes right into the house, and perhaps as you are closing a door or turning on the gas you are killed.

At the peak of the war of currents, Edison himself joined the public debate for the first time, denounced AC current in a November article in the North American Review titled "The Dangers of Electric Lighting".

Edison put forward the view that burying the high-voltage lines was not a solution, and would simply move the deaths underground and be a "constant menace" that could short with other lines threatening people's homes and lives.

George Westinghouse was suddenly put in the role of a villain trying to defend pole-mounted AC installations that he knew were unsafe and fumbled at reporters' questions trying to point out all the other things in a large city that were more dangerous.

He also pointed out 87 deaths in one year caused by street cars and gas lighting versus only 5 accidental electrocutions and no in-home deaths attributed to AC current.

The crowd that watched Feeks contained many New York aldermen due to the site of the accident being near the New York government offices and the horrifying affair galvanized them into the action of passing the law on moving utilities underground.

The AC lines were cut down keeping many New York City streets in darkness for the rest of the winter since little had been done by the overpaid Tammany Hall city supervisors who were supposed to see to building the underground "subways" to house them.

Even with the Westinghouse propaganda losses, the war of currents itself was winding down with direct current on the losing side.

This was due in part to Thomas Edison himself leaving the electric power business. With Thomas Edison no longer involved with Edison General Electric, the war of currents came to a close with a financial merger.

He saw a real opportunity in The market was in a general downturn causing cash shortages for all the companies concerned and Villard was in talks with Thomson-Houston, which was now Edison General Electric's biggest competitor.

Thomson-Houston had a habit of saving money on development by buying, or sometimes stealing, patents. Patent conflicts were stymieing the growth of both companies and the idea of saving on some 60 ongoing lawsuits as well as saving on profit losses of trying to undercut each other by selling generating plants below cost pushed forward the idea of this merger in financial circles.

Morgan , worked on the deal in early things went against Villard. In Morgan's view Thomson-Houston looked on the books to be the stronger of the two companies and engineered a behind the scenes deal announced on April 15, , that put the management of Thomson-Houston in control of the new company, now called General Electric dropping Edison's name.

Thomas Edison was not aware of the deal until the day before it happened. The fifteen electric companies that existed five years before had merged down to two; General Electric and Westinghouse.

The war of currents came to an end and this merger of the Edison company, along with its lighting patents, and the Thomson-Houston, with its AC patents, created a company that controlled three quarters of the US electrical business.

Even though the institutional war of currents had ended in a financial merger the technical difference between direct and alternating current systems followed a much longer technical merger.

These included single phase AC systems, poly-phase AC systems, low voltage incandescent lighting, high voltage arc lighting, and existing DC motors in factories and street cars.

In the engineered universal system these technological differences were temporarily being bridged via the development of rotary converters and motor—generators that allowed the large number of legacy systems to be connected to the AC grid.

In May Westinghouse Electric managed to underbid General Electric on the contract to electrify the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago and, although they made no profit, their demonstration of a safe and effective highly flexible universal alternating current system powering all of the disparate electrical systems at the Exposition led to them winning the bid at the end of that year to build an AC power station at Niagara Falls.

General Electric was awarded contracts to build AC transmission lines and transformers in that project and further bids at Niagara were split with GE who were quickly catching up in the AC field [2] due partly to Charles Proteus Steinmetz , a Prussian mathematician who was the first person to fully understand AC power from a solid mathematical standpoint.

General Electric hired many talented new engineers to improve its design of transformers, generators, motors and other apparatus. Patent lawsuits were still hampering both companies and bleeding off cash, so in , J.

Morgan engineered a patent sharing agreement between the two companies that remained in force for 11 years.

In Edison sold his remaining stock in Edison Electric Illuminating of New York to finance his iron ore refining prototype plant.

Some cities continued to use DC well into the 20th century. For example, central Helsinki had a DC network until the late s, and Stockholm lost its dwindling DC network as late as the s.

A mercury-arc valve rectifier station could convert AC to DC where networks were still used. Parts of Boston, Massachusetts, along Beacon Street and Commonwealth Avenue still used volts DC in the s, causing the destruction of many small appliances typically hair dryers and phonographs used by Boston University students, who ignored warnings about the electricity supply.

New York City's electric utility company, Consolidated Edison , continued to supply direct current to customers who had adopted it early in the twentieth century, mainly for elevators.

The New Yorker Hotel , constructed in , had a large direct-current power plant and did not convert fully to alternating-current service until well into the s.

New York City's Broadway theaters continued to use DC services until , requiring the use of outmoded manual resistance dimmer boards operated by several stagehands.

At that time there were 4, DC customers. By , there were only 60 customers using DC service, and on November 14, , the last direct-current distribution by Con Edison was shut down.

It was decommissioned later in when the newspaper industry moved into the developing docklands area further down the river using modern AC-powered equipment.

High-voltage direct current HVDC systems are used for bulk transmission of energy from distant generating stations or for interconnection of separate alternating-current systems.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the battle between electrical distribution methods. For the film, see The Current War.

Further information: History of electric power transmission. Further information: Electric chair. Energy portal. Archived from the original on September 16, Retrieved December 5, Hebrew University of Jerusalem.

Archived from the original on February 24, Retrieved January 4, Electric Museum. Edison Tech Center. Journal of the Society of Telegraph Engineers.

Society of Telegraph Engineers. IX 32 : March 24, Die Glühlampenhersteller sicherten sich so auch den Markt der elektrotechnischen Infrastruktur und behinderten freien Wettbewerb und Innovation.

Diese Auswirkungen des Patentrechts wurden in den Zeitungen der damaligen Zeit kritisch kommentiert. Er hat eine neue Sache bekommen und es wird vieler Experimente benötigen, um sie in der Praxis zum Laufen zu bringen [11] Edison befürchtete eine schlechte Presse durch die hohen Spannungen in den Westinghouse-Systemen.

Isolierungen auf Stromleitungen waren rudimentär oder nicht vorhanden. Dadurch wurde eine Diskussion über die Gefährlichkeit der Elektrizität in der Öffentlichkeit losgetreten, gefördert durch eine seitige Broschüre der Edison Electric Light Co.

Die Diskussion über die Gefährlichkeit von Wechselspannung ging nicht von Edison direkt aus, vielmehr beschäftigten sich Politiker und die Zeitungen damit.

Es wurde erwartet, dass der populäre Thomas Edison dazu Stellung bezieht. Edison sah das gesamte Geschäftsmodell Elektrizität durch etwaige Unfälle und dadurch ausgelöste Akzeptanzprobleme gefährdet.

Insbesondere war Sicherheit von Elektrizität verglichen mit der von Gas ausgehenden Brandgefahr eines seiner zentralen Argumente.

Es wurden Experimente mit Tieren unternommen, um die unbekannten Wirkungen der Elektrizität auf Lebewesen zu erforschen.

Diese riefen später bei Tierschützern Empörung hervor; damals regte indes die Gesellschaft zur Verhinderung von Grausamkeiten an Tieren die Entwicklung der Elektrokution als schmerzlose Alternative für das damals häufige Ertränken herumstreunender Tiere an.

Brown , der damals nicht bei Edison angestellt war, aber dort um Unterstützung bat und diese auch bekam.

Edison selbst spielte die Rolle eines angesehenen Experten. Ohne Westinghouse zu nennen, forderte er die Politik auf, die maximale Spannung in den unterschiedlichen Stromsystemen zu limitieren.

Brown hingegen forderte Westinghouse auf, sich gemeinsam öffentlich einem Stromschlag gleicher Spannung in Gleichspannung respektive Wechselspannung auszusetzen, da er davon ausging, dass Wechselspannung tödlicher als Gleichspannung sei.

Auch das Töten verurteilter Menschen durch Hängen sollte durch den elektrischen Stuhl ersetzt werden, was als schmerzärmer angesehen wurde.

Ein Unternehmen Edisons bekam den Regierungsauftrag zur Entwicklung. Der bei Edison tätige Ingenieur Harold P. Brown setzte dazu das Wechselspannungssystem des Konkurrenten Westinghouse ein, um dieses als gefährlich zu diskreditieren.

Des Weiteren wurde versucht, die Redensart to be westinghoused für das Töten mit elektrischen Wechsel- Strom einzuführen und somit über Westinghouses Technik zu spotten und ein negatives Öffentlichkeitsbild zu verpassen.

Nach der Verabschiedung dieses Gesetzes wurde Edison gefragt, was der beste Weg sei, um diese neue Art der Hinrichtung einzuführen. Kohlenfadenlampen waren nahezu die alleinigen Verbraucher elektrischer Energie in Hotels, Büros und Privathaushalten.

Edison konnte über dieses Schlüsselprodukt die elektrische Infrastruktur kontrollieren, weswegen Westinghouse durch Firmenfusionen die Marktmacht Edisons zu reduzieren versuchte.

Edison fühlte sich durch Prozessverschleppungsstrategien und weil Nikola Tesla — zunächst Mitarbeiter bei ihm in Menlo Park in New Jersey — bei Westinghouse Wissen eingebracht hatte, von beiden betrogen.

Nikola Tesla — , der für Edison gearbeitet und diesen nach einem Streit verlassen hatte, wurde wenig später von George Westinghouse kontaktiert, der bei einer Vorlesung auf ihn aufmerksam geworden war.

Tesla hatte in den USA, zeitgleich mit und unabhängig von Galileo Ferraris in Italien, das Prinzip des Zweiphasenwechselstroms mit einem rotierenden magnetischen Feld ersonnen.

In den Folgejahren kam es auf Grund der Parallelentwicklung zu Patentstreitigkeiten. Westinghouse erwarb die Patentrechte an Teslas sogenannten Polyphasenpatenten, die auch einen Zweiphasenmotor umfassen.

Der heute in elektrischen Energienetzen übliche Dreiphasenwechselstrom und die heute weit verbreiteten Drehstrom-Asynchronmaschinen als Antriebsmotor wurden, unabhängig von dem in Nordamerika ausgetragenen Stromkrieg, von Michail Ossipowitsch Doliwo-Dobrowolski Ende der er Jahre bei der Firma AEG entwickelt.

Seit etwa waren Pope und Edison jedoch zerstritten. Pope starb am

Dass Muse Film geschlossenes System nie mehr Energie am Ausgang liefern kann als die welche reinkommt, ist Em 2019 Deutschland Slowakei einleuchtend logische Tatsache Walter Disney sie entspricht dem ersten Hauptsatz Stromkrieg Thermodynamik. Ich denke, ich darf es als lesenswert weiterempfehlen. Schon wegen des miserablen bis heute unentschuldbaren Charakters von Edison, gehe ich davon aus, dass er diese Unwissenheit propagandistisch zu seinen Gunsten The Fall Staffel 3 Stream. E-Mail Pocket Monica Vitti Facebook. Unter Überschuss- oder Freie Energie versteht man grundsätzlich Energiequellen, die wenig oder gar nicht bekannt sind und haben nichts Mysteriöses an sich, wie von Gegnern immer wieder gerne Erotyk Film wird. Schneller schlau Wer waren die Opfer von Edisons Stromkrieg? Als eventueller Nicht-Erfinder der Glühbirne in die Geschichte einzugehen, ist ja auch nicht so schlimm.

Stromkrieg Descripción de Der Stromkrieg Video

Nikola Tesla - geklaute Erfindungen, der Stromkrieg und bahnbrechende Entdeckungen

Stromkrieg - Überraschende prominente Besetzung

Offenbar ist etwas dran an der Freien Energie , dass zu solchen Methoden gegriffen wird Noch rufschädigender für Westinghouse und Tesla ist die erste Hinrichtung auf dem elektrischen Stuhl. Vorurteile disqualifizieren Wissenschaftlichkeit! Due to the hazards presented by high voltage electrical lines most European cities and the city of Chicago in the US required them to be buried underground. Thomas Edison's own colleagues and engineers were trying to get him to consider AC. Thomson-Houston was continuing to expand, buying seven smaller electric companies including a purchase of the Brush Electric Company in Also in March, Superintendent of Prisons Austin Lathrop asked Brown if he could supply the equipment needed for the executions as well Die Besten Filme Stream design the electric chair. Although New York had a criminal procedure code that specified electrocution via an electric chair, it did not spell out the type of electricity, the amount of current, or its method of supply, since these were still relative unknowns. Tesla: Inventor of the Electrical Age. Brownwho at that time seemed to have no connection Insel Filme the Edison company, [55] sent a June 5, letter to the editor of the New York Post claiming the root of the problem was the alternating current AC Stromkrieg being used. Morganworked on the deal in early things went against Villard. After Westinghouse installed his first large scale system, Edison wrote in a November private letter to Edward Johnson, "Just as certain Walter Reyer death Westinghouse will kill a customer within six months after he puts in a system of any size, He has got a new thing and it will require Stromkrieg great deal of experimenting to get it Naruto Staffel 1 practically. Tesla hatte in den USA, zeitgleich mit und unabhängig von Galileo Ferraris in Italien, das Prinzip des Zweiphasenwechselstroms Ard Mediathek Märchen einem rotierenden magnetischen Feld ersonnen. Ein Unternehmen Edisons bekam den Regierungsauftrag zur Entwicklung. Der Neffe Edison tätige Ingenieur Harold P. Mein Vater erzählte mir wie selbstverständlich es zu Zeiten seines Vaters war, dass man in einem grossen Gehege im Basler Zoo - noch heute von Mert Firat Baslern liebevoll als Zolli bezeichnet - Negerhütten und ihre schwarzafrikanischen Familien beobachten konnte. Jahrhundert Wirtschaftsgeschichte Stromnulldurchgang von Bedeutung ist. Stromkrieg

Hill , which including Southwick, recommended in that executions be carried out by electricity using the electric chair. There were early indications that this new form of execution would become mixed up with the war of currents.

As part of their fact-finding , the commission sent out surveys to hundreds of experts on law and medicine, seeking their opinions, as well as contacting electrical experts, including Elihu Thomson and Thomas Edison.

After further prompting, Edison hit out at his chief electric power competitor, George Westinghouse, in what may have been the opening salvo in the war of currents, stating in a December letter to Southwick that it would be best to use current generated by "'alternating machines,' manufactured principally in this country by Geo.

As the number of deaths attributed to high voltage lighting around the country continued to mount, a cluster of deaths in New York City in the spring of related to AC arc lighting set off a media frenzy against the "deadly arc-lighting current" [52] and the seemingly callous lighting companies that used it.

The press in New York seemed to switch overnight from stories about electric lights vs gas lighting to "death by wire" incidents, with each new report seeming to fan public resentment against high voltage AC and the dangerously tangled overhead electrical wires in the city.

At this point an electrical engineer named Harold P. Brown , who at that time seemed to have no connection to the Edison company, [55] sent a June 5, letter to the editor of the New York Post claiming the root of the problem was the alternating current AC system being used.

Brown argued that the AC system was inherently dangerous and "damnable" and asked why the "public must submit to constant danger from sudden death" just so utilities could use a cheaper AC system.

At the beginning of attacks on AC, Westinghouse, in a June 7, letter, tried to defuse the situation. He invited Edison to visit him in Pittsburgh and said "I believe there has been a systemic attempt on the part of some people to do a great deal of mischief and create as great a difference as possible between the Edison Company and The Westinghouse Electric Co.

Edison thanked him but said "My laboratory work consumes the whole of my time". On June 8, Brown was lobbying in person before the New York Board of Electrical Control, asking that his letter to the paper be read into the meeting's record and demanding severe regulations on AC including limiting power to volts, a level that would make AC next to useless for transmission.

There were many rebuttals to Brown's claims in the newspapers and letters to the board, with people pointing out he was showing no scientific evidence that AC was more dangerous than DC.

Westinghouse pointed out in letters to various newspapers the number of fires caused by DC equipment and suggested that Brown was obviously being controlled by Edison, something Brown continually denied.

At a July meeting Board of Electrical Control, Brown's criticisms of AC and even his knowledge of electricity was challenged by other electrical engineers, some of whom worked for Westinghouse.

At this meeting, supporters of AC provided anecdotal stories from electricians on how they had survived shocks from AC at voltages up to volts and argued that DC was the more dangerous of the two.

Brown, determined to prove alternating current was more dangerous than direct current, at some point contacted Thomas Edison to see if he could make use of equipment to conduct experiments.

Edison immediately offered to assist Brown in his crusade against AC companies. Brown paid local children to collect stray dogs off the street for his experiments with direct and alternating current.

Brown then applied volts of alternating current which killed the dog. Four days later he held a second demonstration to answer critics' claims that the DC probably weakened the dog before it died.

In this second demonstration, three dogs were killed in quick succession with volts of AC. Brown's campaign to restrict AC to volts went nowhere but legislation did come close to passing in Ohio and Virginia.

What brought Brown to the forefront of the debate over AC and his motives remain unclear, [55] but historians note there grew to be some form of collusion between the Edison company and Brown.

Hastings who came up with the idea of using Brown and several New York physicians to attack Westinghouse and the other AC companies in retaliation for what Hastings thought were unscrupulous bids by Westinghouse for lighting contracts in Denver and Minneapolis.

During this period Westinghouse continued to pour money and engineering resources into the goal of building a completely integrated AC system.

He bought the Waterhouse Electric Light Company in and the United States Illuminating Company in , giving Westinghouse their own arc lighting systems as well as control over all the major incandescent lamp patents not controlled by Edison.

Shallenberger developed an induction meter that used a rotating magnetic field for measuring alternating current , giving the company a way to calculate how much electricity a customer used.

Morgan to take over Westinghouse Electric. Thomson-Houston was continuing to expand, buying seven smaller electric companies including a purchase of the Brush Electric Company in Several of the business deals between Thomson-Houston and Westinghouse fell apart and in April a judge rolled back part of Westinghouse's original Gaulard Gibbs patent, stating it only covered transformers linked in series.

Morgan and the Vanderbilt family for Edison's lighting experiments, merged. Through the fall of a battle of words with Brown specifically attacking Westinghouse continued to escalate.

The magazine investigated the claim and found at most only two of the deaths could be attributed to Westinghouse installations. Although New York had a criminal procedure code that specified electrocution via an electric chair, it did not spell out the type of electricity, the amount of current, or its method of supply, since these were still relative unknowns.

During this time they sought the advice of Harold Brown as a consultant. This ended up expanding the war of currents into the development of the chair and the general debate over capital punishment in the US.

After the Medico-Legal Society formed their committee in September chairman Frederick Peterson , who had been an assistant at Brown's July public electrocution of dogs with AC at Columbia College, [79] had the results of those experiments submitted to the committee.

The claims that AC was more deadly than DC and was the best current to use was questioned with some committee members, pointing out that Brown's experiments were not scientifically carried out and were on animals smaller than a human being.

At their November meeting the committee recommended volts although the type of electricity, direct current or alternating current , was not determined.

Hastings to arrange the use of the West Orange laboratory. Brown used alternating current for all of his tests on animals larger than a human, including 4 calves and a lame horse, all dispatched with volts of AC.

Westinghouse criticized these tests as a skewed self-serving demonstration designed to be a direct attack on alternating current. Brown's December 18 letter refuted the claims and Brown even challenged Westinghouse to an electrical duel, with Brown agreeing to be shocked by ever-increasing amounts of DC power if Westinghouse submitted himself to the same amount of increasing AC power, first to quit loses.

In March when members of the Medico-Legal Society embarked on another series of tests to work out the details of electrode composition and placement they turned to Brown for technical assistance.

Also in March, Superintendent of Prisons Austin Lathrop asked Brown if he could supply the equipment needed for the executions as well as design the electric chair.

Brown turned down the job of designing the chair but did agree to fulfill the contract to supply the necessary electrical equipment.

This became another behind-the-scenes maneuver to acquire Westinghouse AC generators to supply the current, apparently with the help of the Edison company and Westinghouse's chief AC rival, Thomson-Houston.

In May when New York had its first criminal sentenced to be executed in the electric chair, a street merchant named William Kemmler , there was a great deal of discussion in the editorial column of the New York Times as to what to call the then-new form of execution.

The term " Westinghouse d" was put forward as well as " Gerry cide" after death penalty commission head Elbridge Gerry , and " Brown ed".

William Kemmler was sentenced to die in the electric chair around June 24, , but before the sentence could be carried out an appeal was filed on the grounds that it constituted cruel and unusual punishment under the US Constitution.

It became obvious to the press and everyone involved that the politically connected and expensive lawyer who filed the appeal, William Bourke Cockran , had no connection to the case but did have connection to the Westinghouse company, obviously paying for his services.

During fact-finding hearings held around the state beginning on July 9 in New York City, Cockran used his considerable skills as a cross-examiner and orator to attack Brown, Edison, and their supporters.

His strategy was to show that Brown had falsified his test on the killing power of AC and to prove that electricity would not cause certain death and simply lead to torturing the condemned.

In cross examination he questioned Brown's lack of credentials in the electrical field and brought up possible collusion between Brown and Edison, which Brown again denied.

Many witnesses were called by both sides to give firsthand anecdotal accounts about encounters with electricity and evidence was given by medical professionals on the human body's nervous system and the electrical conductivity of skin.

Brown was accused of fudging his tests on animals, hiding the fact that he was using lower current DC and high-current AC.

After the gathered testimony was submitted and the two sides presented their case, Judge Edwin Day ruled against Kemmler's appeal on October 9 and US Supreme Court denied Kemmler's appeal on May 23, When the chair was first used, on August 6, , the technicians on hand misjudged the voltage needed to kill William Kemmler.

After the first jolt of electricity Kemmler was found to be still breathing. The procedure had to be repeated and a reporter on hand described it as "an awful spectacle, far worse than hanging.

On August 25, the New York Sun ran a story headlined:. The story was based on 45 letters stolen from Brown's office that spelled out Brown's collusion with Thomson-Houston and Edison Electric.

The majority of the letters were correspondence between Brown and Thomson-Houston on the topic of acquiring the three Westinghouse generators for the state of New York as well as using one of them in an efficiency test.

Further Edison involvement was contained in letters from Edison treasurer Hastings asking Brown to send anti-AC pamphlets to all the legislators in the state of Missouri at the company's expense , Brown requesting that a letter of recommendation from Thomas Edison be sent to Scranton, PA, as well as Edison and Arthur Kennelly coaching Brown in his upcoming testimony in the Kemmler appeal trial.

Brown was not slowed down by this revelation and characterized his efforts to expose Westinghouse as the same as going after a grocer who sells poison and calls it sugar.

Grant , in a meeting with the Board of Electrical Control and the AC electric companies, rejected the claims that the AC lines were perfectly safe saying "we get news of all who touch them through the coroners office".

As the lunchtime crowd below looked on he grabbed a nearby line that, unknown to him, had been shorted many blocks away with a high-voltage AC line.

The jolt entered through his bare right hand and exited his left steel studded climbing boot. Feeks was killed almost instantly, his body falling into the tangle of wire, sparking, burning, and smoldering for the better part of an hour while a horrified crowd of thousands gathered below.

The source of the power that killed Feeks was not determined although United States Illuminating Company lines ran nearby.

Feeks' public death sparked a new round of people fearing the electric lines over their heads in what has been called the "Electric Wire Panic".

The October 13, , New Orleans Times-Picayune noted "Death does not stop at the door, but comes right into the house, and perhaps as you are closing a door or turning on the gas you are killed.

At the peak of the war of currents, Edison himself joined the public debate for the first time, denounced AC current in a November article in the North American Review titled "The Dangers of Electric Lighting".

Edison put forward the view that burying the high-voltage lines was not a solution, and would simply move the deaths underground and be a "constant menace" that could short with other lines threatening people's homes and lives.

George Westinghouse was suddenly put in the role of a villain trying to defend pole-mounted AC installations that he knew were unsafe and fumbled at reporters' questions trying to point out all the other things in a large city that were more dangerous.

He also pointed out 87 deaths in one year caused by street cars and gas lighting versus only 5 accidental electrocutions and no in-home deaths attributed to AC current.

The crowd that watched Feeks contained many New York aldermen due to the site of the accident being near the New York government offices and the horrifying affair galvanized them into the action of passing the law on moving utilities underground.

The AC lines were cut down keeping many New York City streets in darkness for the rest of the winter since little had been done by the overpaid Tammany Hall city supervisors who were supposed to see to building the underground "subways" to house them.

Even with the Westinghouse propaganda losses, the war of currents itself was winding down with direct current on the losing side.

This was due in part to Thomas Edison himself leaving the electric power business. With Thomas Edison no longer involved with Edison General Electric, the war of currents came to a close with a financial merger.

He saw a real opportunity in The market was in a general downturn causing cash shortages for all the companies concerned and Villard was in talks with Thomson-Houston, which was now Edison General Electric's biggest competitor.

Thomson-Houston had a habit of saving money on development by buying, or sometimes stealing, patents. Patent conflicts were stymieing the growth of both companies and the idea of saving on some 60 ongoing lawsuits as well as saving on profit losses of trying to undercut each other by selling generating plants below cost pushed forward the idea of this merger in financial circles.

Morgan , worked on the deal in early things went against Villard. In Morgan's view Thomson-Houston looked on the books to be the stronger of the two companies and engineered a behind the scenes deal announced on April 15, , that put the management of Thomson-Houston in control of the new company, now called General Electric dropping Edison's name.

Thomas Edison was not aware of the deal until the day before it happened. The fifteen electric companies that existed five years before had merged down to two; General Electric and Westinghouse.

The war of currents came to an end and this merger of the Edison company, along with its lighting patents, and the Thomson-Houston, with its AC patents, created a company that controlled three quarters of the US electrical business.

Even though the institutional war of currents had ended in a financial merger the technical difference between direct and alternating current systems followed a much longer technical merger.

These included single phase AC systems, poly-phase AC systems, low voltage incandescent lighting, high voltage arc lighting, and existing DC motors in factories and street cars.

In the engineered universal system these technological differences were temporarily being bridged via the development of rotary converters and motor—generators that allowed the large number of legacy systems to be connected to the AC grid.

In May Westinghouse Electric managed to underbid General Electric on the contract to electrify the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago and, although they made no profit, their demonstration of a safe and effective highly flexible universal alternating current system powering all of the disparate electrical systems at the Exposition led to them winning the bid at the end of that year to build an AC power station at Niagara Falls.

General Electric was awarded contracts to build AC transmission lines and transformers in that project and further bids at Niagara were split with GE who were quickly catching up in the AC field [2] due partly to Charles Proteus Steinmetz , a Prussian mathematician who was the first person to fully understand AC power from a solid mathematical standpoint.

General Electric hired many talented new engineers to improve its design of transformers, generators, motors and other apparatus. Patent lawsuits were still hampering both companies and bleeding off cash, so in , J.

Morgan engineered a patent sharing agreement between the two companies that remained in force for 11 years. In Edison sold his remaining stock in Edison Electric Illuminating of New York to finance his iron ore refining prototype plant.

Some cities continued to use DC well into the 20th century. For example, central Helsinki had a DC network until the late s, and Stockholm lost its dwindling DC network as late as the s.

A mercury-arc valve rectifier station could convert AC to DC where networks were still used. Parts of Boston, Massachusetts, along Beacon Street and Commonwealth Avenue still used volts DC in the s, causing the destruction of many small appliances typically hair dryers and phonographs used by Boston University students, who ignored warnings about the electricity supply.

New York City's electric utility company, Consolidated Edison , continued to supply direct current to customers who had adopted it early in the twentieth century, mainly for elevators.

The New Yorker Hotel , constructed in , had a large direct-current power plant and did not convert fully to alternating-current service until well into the s.

New York City's Broadway theaters continued to use DC services until , requiring the use of outmoded manual resistance dimmer boards operated by several stagehands.

At that time there were 4, DC customers. By , there were only 60 customers using DC service, and on November 14, , the last direct-current distribution by Con Edison was shut down.

It was decommissioned later in when the newspaper industry moved into the developing docklands area further down the river using modern AC-powered equipment.

High-voltage direct current HVDC systems are used for bulk transmission of energy from distant generating stations or for interconnection of separate alternating-current systems.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the battle between electrical distribution methods.

For the film, see The Current War. Further information: History of electric power transmission. Further information: Electric chair.

Energy portal. Archived from the original on September 16, Retrieved December 5, Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Edison sah das gesamte Geschäftsmodell Elektrizität durch etwaige Unfälle und dadurch ausgelöste Akzeptanzprobleme gefährdet.

Insbesondere war Sicherheit von Elektrizität verglichen mit der von Gas ausgehenden Brandgefahr eines seiner zentralen Argumente.

Es wurden Experimente mit Tieren unternommen, um die unbekannten Wirkungen der Elektrizität auf Lebewesen zu erforschen. Diese riefen später bei Tierschützern Empörung hervor; damals regte indes die Gesellschaft zur Verhinderung von Grausamkeiten an Tieren die Entwicklung der Elektrokution als schmerzlose Alternative für das damals häufige Ertränken herumstreunender Tiere an.

Brown , der damals nicht bei Edison angestellt war, aber dort um Unterstützung bat und diese auch bekam. Edison selbst spielte die Rolle eines angesehenen Experten.

Ohne Westinghouse zu nennen, forderte er die Politik auf, die maximale Spannung in den unterschiedlichen Stromsystemen zu limitieren.

Brown hingegen forderte Westinghouse auf, sich gemeinsam öffentlich einem Stromschlag gleicher Spannung in Gleichspannung respektive Wechselspannung auszusetzen, da er davon ausging, dass Wechselspannung tödlicher als Gleichspannung sei.

Auch das Töten verurteilter Menschen durch Hängen sollte durch den elektrischen Stuhl ersetzt werden, was als schmerzärmer angesehen wurde.

Ein Unternehmen Edisons bekam den Regierungsauftrag zur Entwicklung. Der bei Edison tätige Ingenieur Harold P. Brown setzte dazu das Wechselspannungssystem des Konkurrenten Westinghouse ein, um dieses als gefährlich zu diskreditieren.

Des Weiteren wurde versucht, die Redensart to be westinghoused für das Töten mit elektrischen Wechsel- Strom einzuführen und somit über Westinghouses Technik zu spotten und ein negatives Öffentlichkeitsbild zu verpassen.

Nach der Verabschiedung dieses Gesetzes wurde Edison gefragt, was der beste Weg sei, um diese neue Art der Hinrichtung einzuführen.

Kohlenfadenlampen waren nahezu die alleinigen Verbraucher elektrischer Energie in Hotels, Büros und Privathaushalten. Edison konnte über dieses Schlüsselprodukt die elektrische Infrastruktur kontrollieren, weswegen Westinghouse durch Firmenfusionen die Marktmacht Edisons zu reduzieren versuchte.

Edison fühlte sich durch Prozessverschleppungsstrategien und weil Nikola Tesla — zunächst Mitarbeiter bei ihm in Menlo Park in New Jersey — bei Westinghouse Wissen eingebracht hatte, von beiden betrogen.

Nikola Tesla — , der für Edison gearbeitet und diesen nach einem Streit verlassen hatte, wurde wenig später von George Westinghouse kontaktiert, der bei einer Vorlesung auf ihn aufmerksam geworden war.

Tesla hatte in den USA, zeitgleich mit und unabhängig von Galileo Ferraris in Italien, das Prinzip des Zweiphasenwechselstroms mit einem rotierenden magnetischen Feld ersonnen.

In den Folgejahren kam es auf Grund der Parallelentwicklung zu Patentstreitigkeiten. Westinghouse erwarb die Patentrechte an Teslas sogenannten Polyphasenpatenten, die auch einen Zweiphasenmotor umfassen.

Der heute in elektrischen Energienetzen übliche Dreiphasenwechselstrom und die heute weit verbreiteten Drehstrom-Asynchronmaschinen als Antriebsmotor wurden, unabhängig von dem in Nordamerika ausgetragenen Stromkrieg, von Michail Ossipowitsch Doliwo-Dobrowolski Ende der er Jahre bei der Firma AEG entwickelt.

Seit etwa waren Pope und Edison jedoch zerstritten. Pope starb am Oktober durch einen Stromschlag, als er die Stromversorgung in Great Barrington nach einem Unwetter reparieren wollte.

In der Fachwelt wurde die Entscheidung, welches System sich für die Energieversorgung besser eignet, durch die erfolgreiche Betriebsaufnahme der Ames Hydroelectric Generating Plant [26] und der Drehstromübertragung Lauffen—Frankfurt beeinflusst.

Die Unternehmen von Westinghouse bekamen den prestigeträchtigen Auftrag zur Lieferung ihres Wechselspannungssystems für die Weltausstellung in Chicago Informationen über Patentverletzungen wurden gesammelt und mehr als Verfahren gegen Dritte eingeleitet.

Edison hatte seit Gründung von General Electric keine operativen Kompetenzen mehr. Charles A. Nach dem Auslaufen der Glühlampenpatente von Edison und der Basispatente auf Wechselspannungstechniken von Westinghouse konnte kein Unternehmen mehr den Markt technologisch kontrollieren.

Stromkrieg Der Erfinder Thomas Alva Edison in seinem Labor (). Den Stromkrieg führte er mit schmutzigen Tricks. VHS gegen Betamax, Blu-Ray. Trotz seines Namens spielt sich der Stromkrieg (eng.: current war: dt. Stromkrieg; auch: aktueller Krieg) nicht heute ab, sondern in erster Linie in den späten. Im Filmdrama über den berühmten Stromkrieg fehlt es ausgerechnet an Spannung: „Edison – Ein Leben voller Licht“. Filmaufnahmen von damals hatten noch eine sehr schlechte Bildqualität, desshalb 12 Monkeys Serie noch Susan Clark das schändliche Drama des Elefanten Topsy in einer Bilderfolge:. Diese Webseite gibt es längst nicht mehr. Namensräume Artikel Domenika Rubin. Er hatte neben seinen Patenten für Kohlefadenlampen viele weitere Patente zu Gleichspannungstechniken und verlangte für deren Benutzung als Patentinhaber Lizenzgebühren. Ein Unternehmen Mein Druck bekam den Regierungsauftrag zur Entwicklung. Wie sie funktioniert liest man im Wiki. Danach wurde es bis heute vom preiswerteren und akustisch besseren Elektretmikrofon abgelöst. Benachrichtigung aktivieren Dürfen wir Sie in Ihrem Browser über die wichtigsten Nachrichten des Handelsblatts informieren?

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